“Dizziness” is a nonspecific term often used by patients to describe symptoms. The most common disorders lumped under this term include vertigo, nonspecific “dizziness,” disequilibrium, and presyncope. The first step in the evaluation is to fit the patient with typical symptoms into one of these categories.
So Vertigo is only one type of dizziness.
Vertigo is a symptom of illusory movement. Almost everyone has experienced vertigo as the transient spinning dizziness immediately after turning around rapidly several times. Vertigo can also be a sense of swaying or tilting. Some perceive self-motion whereas others perceive motion of the environment.
Vertigo is a symptom, not a diagnosis. It arises because of asymmetry in the vestibular system due to damage to or dysfunction of the labyrinth, vestibular nerve, or central vestibular structures in the brainstem.
There are many Test available for evaluation of vertigo.